CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, BORROWINGS AND SCHEDULES
Drafting Committee, bore the responsibility of drafting the Constitutional document during the recess of the Constituent Assembly, from July 1947 to Sept 1948. It was formed on Aug 29 1947. The members of this Drafting Committee were.
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar- Chairman.
- N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar.
- Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar
- K.M. Munshi.
- Syyed Mohd.Saadualla.
- N.Madhav Rao.
ENACTMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION.
The Drafting Committee prepared the draft of the constitution. It came out in the open on Feb 4 ,1948 to elicit the public opinion and reaction to it. The Assembly had a general discussion on it for five days to find out the flaws. Again the Constituent Assembly met on Nov 15,1948 when the provision of the draft was considered and discussed in details. During this stage, as many as 7653 amendments were proposed and 2473 were actually discussed in the Assembly.
The third meeting of the draft started on Nov 14, 1949. It was finally passed and accepted to Nov 26,1949. The last session of the Assembly was held on Jan 24 1950. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of India. All 284 members of the Assembly signed the official copies of the Indian Constitution which came out in to effect on Jan 26,1950. Since then the day is known “Republic Day of India”. The Constitution, adopted on Nov 26 , 1949 contained a Preamble, 395 articles and 8 schedules (at present 12).
Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months 18 days to complete the constitution. Although it was ready on Nov 26, 1949 but was delayed till Jan 26,1950 because in 1929 on this day Indian National Congress demanded “Poorna Swaraj” in Lahore session under J.L.Nehru. The Constituent Assembly adopted our National Flag on July 22, 1947. It was designed by Pingali Venkaiah of Andhra Pradesh.
BORROWED FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTION.
Namely 75% of the Constitution can be said to be a reproduction of the Government of India Act 1935 with suitable adaptation and modification. Besides the indigenous sources, the Constituent Assembly had before it several models of foreign Constitution.
CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, BORROWINGS
- National Head – President.
- Cabinet system of ministers.
- Post o the PM.
- Parliamentary type of Government.
- Bicameral Parliament.
- Lower House more powerful.
- Council of ministers.
- Speaker in the Lok Sabha.
- Single citizenship.
- Written Constitution.
- Executive head of the state, President and his being the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
- Vice President is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya sabha.
- Fundamental Rights.
- Supreme Court.
- Provision of States.
- Independence of Judiciary and Judicial reviews.
- Removal of Supreme Court and High Court judges.
- Fundamental Duties.
- Five Year Planning.
- Law on which Supreme Court functions.
- Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergencies.
- Scheme of federation with a strong center.
- Distribution of power between Center and the States.
- Concurrent List.
- Language of Preamble.
- Provisions regarding trade commerce and intercourse.
- Concept of Directive Principle of State policy.
- Method of election of the President.
From South Africa.
- Procedure of Constitutional Amendments.
SCHEDULES IN CONSTITUTION.
At Present there are schedules in the Constitution……
First : List of State and Union Territories.
Second : Salary of President, Governors, Chief Judges, Judges of High Court and Supreme Court.
Third : Forms of Oaths and affirmations.
Fourth : Allocate seats for each State of India in Rajya Sabha.
Fifth : Administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Tribes.
Sixth : Provisions for administration of tribal area in Asssam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
Seventh : Allocation and power between Union and states, contains 3 list.
- Union List (for Central Govt.) 97 subjects.
- States List (power of State Govt.) 66 subjects.
- Concurrent List( both Union and States) 47 subjects.
Eighth : List of 22 language in India, recognized by the Constitution.
- Assamese. 2. Bengali. 3. Gujarati. 4. Hindi. 5. Kannada. 6. Kashmir. 7. Konkani. 8. Malayalam. 9. Manipuri. 10. Marathi. 11. Nepali. 12. Oriya. 13. Punjabi. 14. Sanskrit. 15. Sindhi. 16. Tamil. 17. Telegu. 18. Urdu. 19. Santhali. 20. Bodo. 21. Maithili. 22. Dogri.
Ninth : Added by 1st amendment in 1951. It contains acts and orders related to land tenure, land tax, railways and industries.
Tenth : Added by 52nd amendment, in 1985, contains provisions of disqualification of grounds of defection.
Eleventh : By 73rd amendment in 1992, contains provisions of Panchayeti Raj.
Twelfth : Added by 74th amendment in 1992, contains provisions of Municipal Corporation.
CLICK HERE TO GO TO KNOW MORE
CLICK HERE TO GO TO HOME PAGE
CLICK HERE TO GO TO GOOGLE HOME PAGE